Sunday, April 15, 2012

Hernia Repair Surgery with mesh video

The hernia means a protrusion of a body tissue through a wall of a cavity due to weakness in the abdominal wall.
The peritoneum protrudes through the opening and this defect causes a bulging of the abdominal wall.
See this video about hernial repair with mesh:

The patient with abdominal hernia complain of pain ,tenderness and swelling in the abdomen in the groin area. 

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Removal of hernia sac without any repair of the inguinal sac.
herniotomy is combined with a reinforced repair of the posterior inguinal canal wall with autogenous (patient's own tissue) or heterogeneous material such as prolene mesh


The different types of abdominal hernias are:

Epigastric, umbilical, incisional, lumbar, internal, inguinal, hiatal, and Spigelian hernias

This video explain Direct and Indirect scrotal hernia


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And this is educational Hernia Repair Inguinal:

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Friday, April 6, 2012

Lower Leg Amputation Surgery (Amputated Leg) video

Amputation is acut or removal of apart of a body extremity by trauma, prolonged constriction, or surgery. As a surgical measure,Amputation is still often viewed as a failure of treatment , it is aimed to control pain or a disease process in the affected limb or extremity, such as malignancy or gangrene. In some cases, it is carried out on individuals as a preventative surgery for such problems. A special case is that of congenital amputation, a congenital disorder, where fetal limbs have been cut off by constrictive bands. In some countries, amputation of the hands, feet or other body parts is or was used as a form of punishment for people who committed crimes. Amputation has also been used as a tactic in war and acts of terrorism; it may also occur as a war injury. In some cultures and religions, minor amputations or mutilations are considered a ritual accomplishment. Unlike some non-mammalian animals (such as lizards that shed their tails, salamanders that can regrow many missing body parts, and hydras, flatworms, and starfish that can regrow entire bodies from small fragments), once removed, human extremities do not grow back, unlike portions of some organs, such as the liver. A transplant or a prosthesis are the only options for recovering the loss.

 The decision to perform an amputation often comes after all other options have been exhausted. It is a final decision that cannot be reversed once initiated. The only contraindication to amputation is poor health that impairs the patient's ability to tolerate anesthesia and surgery. However, the diseased limb is often at the center of the patient's illness, leading to a compromised medical status. The removal of the diseased limb is necessary to eliminate systemic toxins and save the patient's life. 

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Although safer equipment exists and improvements in limb salvage surgery have been made, traumatic limb loss continues to occur because of industrial and motor vehicle accidents. These accidents involve high-grade open fractures with associated nerve injury, soft tissue loss, and ischemia and unreconstructable neurovascular injury. In this setting, limb salvage may initially be successful, only to end in an infected painful extremity that affects the patient's activities of daily living and work. Attempts at limb salvage are often made with less-than-favorable results, leaving the patient with an extremity that is less functional than a prosthesis would be and resulting in workdays lost and expense in treatment. 

The goal in treating malignant bone tumors is to remove the lesion with the lowest risk of recurrence. Limb salvage surgery has replaced amputation as the primary treatment for bone tumors. To recommend limb salvage, the risk of local recurrence must be equal to that of amputation, and the salvaged limb must be functional.
Congenital absence and limb malformations account for a small percentage of amputations. These situations are evaluated on an individual basis because these limbs are often functional and amenable to orthotic management or limb reconstruction. When considering amputation, a higher and more functional level than the patient's current level should be obtainable.
Whatever the indication for amputation, the goal remains length preservation and surgical reconstruction that maintains the most functional limb possible. 
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Thursday, March 15, 2012

Clinical examination of Thyroid examination video

Thyroid gland is situated in front of the neck and it responsible of secretion of thyroid Hormone.
Thyroid gland stimulated by pitutary gland by TSH (Thyroid stimulating hormone)and FT3 and FT4. 
Watch this video:

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Functions of the thyroid gland:
The thyroid plays an important role in regulating the body's metabolism and calcium balance. and secrete T4 and T3 hormones which stimulate every tissue in the body to produce proteins and increase the amount of oxygen used by body cells. The harder the cells work, the harder the organs work. The calcitonin hormone works together with the parathyroid hormone to regulate calcium levels in the body.


This is anather video to explain how you can examine the thyroid gland
see this video
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Friday, February 17, 2012

Forceps in Childbirth (delivery) video

Forceps are a surgical instrument that like a pair of tongs and used in surgery for grabbing,delivary, maneuvering, or removing various things within or from the body. used also to assist the delivery of a baby as an alternative to the ventouse method
and the video you will see explain how it used in delivery


The cervix must be fully dilated and retracted and the membranes ruptured. The urinary bladder should be empty, perhaps with the use of a catheter. High forceps are never indicated in this era. Mid forceps can occasionally be indicated but require operator skill and caution. The station of the head must be at least +2 in the lower birth canal. The woman is placed on her back, usually with the aid of stirrups or assistants to support her legs. A mild local or general anesthetic is administered (unless an epidural anesthesia has been given) for adequate pain control. Ascertaining the precise position of the fetal head is paramount, and though historically was accomplished by feeling the fetal skull suture lines and fontanelles, in the modern era, confirmation with ultrasound is essentially mandatory. At this point, the two blades of the forceps are individually inserted, the posterior blade first, then locked. The position on the baby's head is checked. The fetal head is then rotated to the occiput anterior position if it is not already in that position. An episiotomy may be performed if necessary. The baby is then delivered with gentle (maximum 30 lbf or 130 Newton[6]) traction in the axis of the pelvis

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